Porzellan Notgeld Thailand

Privat ausgegebene Münzen, Notgeld und Münzersatzmittel

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diwidat
Beiträge: 2187
Registriert: Mi 27.04.05 20:29
Wohnort: bei Karlsruhe

Porzellan Notgeld Thailand

Beitrag von diwidat » Fr 05.02.10 19:39

Angeregt durch den Beitrag
http://www.numismatikforum.de/ftopic34856.html - und der Erklärung, dass es sich um Casino Token handelt, habe ich mal den alten Ramsden von 1911 hervor gekramt und seine Beschreibung dieser siamesischen Porzellan Token nachgelesen.
Diesen Artikel wollte ich euch nicht vorenthalen, besonders da er sich mit der Katalisierungsgeschicht beschäftigt hat.

Ramsden führt 334 Typen in seinem Katalog auf, die bei einem Crosscheck mit dem Köhler-Osborn noch ein weites Feld vermuten lassen.
Bei beiden sind Stücke enthalten , die der andere nicht aufführt. Da müßte man glatt mal einen Studenten dran setzen - oder einen gelangweilten Rentner. In meiner Sammlung sind auch noch ein paar, die beide nicht drin haben.

aber nun zu den Artikel:


INTRODUCTION.


ORIGIN.—Necessity created a demand for this special kind of tokens:
a convenient adjunct for gambling purposes was required and these
counters were introduced. Haas gives their origin as follows :—
"As gambling became more and more a recognised institution the
bullet shaped small coins—Sailing and Fuang—were found inconvenient
to handle ; namely, the gambler squatting down on an oblong mat, at
one end of which the cashier or croupier was seated in a kneeling attitude,
the coin had often to be thrown to a considerable distance to reach the
croupier, and it was very apt to roll off in a wrong direction. To remedy
this inconvenience the owners of gambling establishments introduced
special counters, etc."
INTRODUCTION.—According to Haas, these counters first made their
appearance in 17.60. Schlegel attibutes the first issues to some 61 years
later; he says " Seit 1821, sagt Herr Hamel, ward den in Siam ansäs-
sigen Chinesischen Spielpächtern erlaubt Miinzen von Porzellan oder
anderem Material in ihren Distrikten in Umlauf zu bringen."
CIRCULATION.—Both Schlegel and Chevillard claim that these
counters were extended for currency purposes to the locality or district of
the gambling firms issuing them. To quote this latter authority. " Ces
pieces de monnaie n' ont de valeur que dans l'etendue de la juridiction
du banquier qui les a emises, a moins, cependant, que deux ou trois d'
entre eux ne s' entendent, comme larrons en foire, pour les agreer dans
leurs quartiers reciproques." Haas goes still further and states " These
counters being issued under authority granted in the gambling licence or
concession, they .rapidly became a medium of exchange, and were found
to fill a long felt want of small money so well, that the circulation went
much beyond its legal sphere."
PROHIBITION.—It is mentioned by Haas that the control of these
tokens by the Siamese government became more and more difficult, and
at last in 1871, it became necessary to prohibit and stop completely all
circulation of these counters. Schlegel is more explicit, giving August,
1875 as the date on which an order was issued by the government pro-
hibiting the further issue of porcelain " coins " (Porzellanmünzen) after
December of the same year. Weyl is not very clear on this matter, but
mentions that coins made of porcelain were current until 3876 and
further adds " Sogar in des ersten Jahren des Konigs Chula Long horn
(187i3) wurden von der Regierung Porzellanmünzen mit dem Kopf
desselben ausgegeben " : a statement which must be accepted with some
reserve. They are all agreed, however, that the circulation of these
tokens continued long after their prohibition.
ISSUES.—That many different issues were circulated will at once be
apparent by the numerous varieties met with. Haas states that, as far
as he could ascertain, about 890 different kinds were known to exist.
Since they were so generally accepted for circulation, it is no wonder that
counterfeits soon made their appearance. The remarks of the author of
" Siamese Coinage" are so appropriate, that I am induced to quote them
in extenso : " Such a facile field for forgers was, however, not long to be
left unexplored by the enterprising Celestials. Gradually a large number
of imitations were thrown into circulation, and in self defense, the
gambling Hongs were compelled to call in and exchange for money their
counters which they substituted by new ones of varied colours and
shapes." An ingenious expedient which has evidently escaped the
notice of the above cited authorities on this subject, was also resorted to
by the issuers of these counters, as a sort of control, the evidence being
supplied by the actual specimens themselves. Sealing wax, red and of
other colours, was applied to the under side or Reverse of the counters,
and, while warm, received the impression of the seal or " chop " mark
of the Hong, which would render imitations more difficult. Some of the
tokens, evidently of latter issues, have even a small receptacle or hole on
the under side to receive the sealing wax for this purpose. This will
explain why many counters are found coated or having traces of this
material. That the owners of the gambling concerns were not always
the victims and that outsiders were also often loosers, will be shown by
Chevillard's graphic account of how these tokens Were demonetized :
" Naturellement si le banquier monopoleur du jeu perd, il paye avec ses
billons. S'il gagne, il est payee avec de la monnaie reelle, done il benefice
toujours. Comment refuser? Ou ira-t-on jouer? Cercle de fer qui

enveloppe le joueur efc favorise le monopoleur. Le plus reel de ses
benefices, ce qui constitue pour lui la base de ses grosses operations lucra-
tives, c'est le retrait de ces billons qu'il peut, quand il veut, retirer de la
circulation. La loi ordonne qu'il fasse savoir le jour a partir duquel sa
monnaie n'aura plus cours environ 48 beures avant son retrait. Or,
voici comment il s'y prend pour satisfaire simultanement a la loi et a sa
bourse. Des crieurs nocturnes vont en barque publier sur le fleuve, vers
le minuit, que desormais cenx qui out des billons d'un tel aient a les
changer a son tripot. Peu de personnes sont instruites de la nouvelle,
attendu que a cette heure pn sque tout le monde dort. Le lendemain du
jour marque, bien des gens se troavent pris. Au marche, personne ne
veut accepter leurs billons, le tripot n'en veut pas egalement; c'est trop
tard, la caisse est fermee. Que faire? Tout simplement se taire et
profiter de la lecon."
MATERIALS.—Porcelain, including earthenware and potter's clay,
glass, (coloured in most instances) lead, bronze and other alloys, as well
as mother of pearl (nacar) have been employed for the manufacture of
these counters. Silver appears also have been used, but I have never
come across a specimen made of this metal. Schlegel mentions that
coins were made in Bangkok first of sealing wax, later of lead and of
yellow metal (brass?) and ultimately of potter's clay and porcelain. He
adds that "Letztere Sorte wird in China angefertigt," which assuredly
will strike most students as peculiar.
SHAPES.—Great ingenuity was manifested in this connection, since
many were the shapes given to these counters. The circular or round
pieces predominate, while stars, cash, ovals, lozenges, gourds, leaves,
door-tablets, butterflies, bats and fishes, are also to be met with.
INSCRIPTIONS.—As almost all the gambling houses or Hongs, to
give them their native name, were farmed by Chinese, and as the ma-
jority of the customers were of the same nationality, it is but natural that
the greater number of inscriptions found on these counters should be
in Chinese characters. The names of the different gambling Hongs are
found on most of the tokens. Sometimes these names are expressed
in full, in others they are represented only by a single character
or seal ("chop" mark), as the case may be. Some tokens appear with
felicitous inscriptions appropriate to the occasion, while others, more
literary inclined, quote poetical " gems " and other mottos. A few have
an attractive design of no mean order and even of artistic merit. That
some were copied from current coins used abroad, those bearing a crown-
ed head, as well as those imitating the patriotic cash, even to the name
of the Emperor of the Dragon Throne, will conclusively prove this to
have been the case.

Gruß diwidat
Dateianhänge
Ramsden.jpg

diwidat
Beiträge: 2187
Registriert: Mi 27.04.05 20:29
Wohnort: bei Karlsruhe

Beitrag von diwidat » Do 18.02.10 23:09

Als Nachtrag zu vorstehenden Artikel, ein paar Bilder, um sich den Unterschied der alten, alt gefälschten und modernen gefälschten Token vor Augen führen kann.

Sicherlich haben einige Sammler solche Stücke in ihren Sammlungen, ohne sie richtig zuordnen zu können.
Hier im Forum gibt es ein paar Experten, die sich damit genau auskennen.

Im oberen Bild ist die No. 2 eine der alten Fälschungen. Im zweiten Bild sind alle Stücke moderne Fälschungen, wie sie z.Zt. in der Bucht angeboten werden.

Gruß diwidat
Dateianhänge
Siam-Porz-Token-2.JPG
Siam-Porz-Token-1.JPG

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